Sunday, September 27, 2015

9 level food forest. not 7

9 level food forest. not 7

Are you familiar with the 7 level food forest that was championed by Robert Hart long ago?  Well, for a while here in the Pacific Northwest it is easy to observe the 8th level, or the Mycellium layer of connections, but there is one many commercial farmers neglect and that is the soil, it has to be fed too, and that is the 9th layer.  So I believe and am trying to work on a 9 layer system in my food forest areas.

Here, our canopy height can vary greatly depending on where someone is along the coast of Oregon, let alone the entire Pacific Northwest coast.  It can be as high as Redwoods (300' high) or as low as standard fruit & nut trees.   It all depends on the needs of the property and the land owner.    

The next layer is the Lower Tree Layer, which can be semi-dwarf or dwarf fruit and nut trees.  Diversity is key always.  Monocultures of any kind of tree is bad for your food forest, mix it up, diversify the portfolio that is your food forest.  Grafts are a great way to add more types of food diversity. 

Shrub Layer such as large berry bushes be they currents, high bush blueberries, goumi, autumn olive, huckleberries.  Many are nitrogen fixing for our trees when chopped and dropped.  It is important to have some in the food forest to continue having nitrogen available at the root and myclieum layers.

The Herbaceous layer such as comfreys, artichokes, cardoons, is next.  Not only do you find your herbs here, but you can chop and drop many as rough mulch which will eventually compost over your winter season. 

A Rhizosphere layer such as beets, carrots, daikon, burdoc, wasabi, horseradish has an important job in the forest.  They break up the deep soil, and bring up nutrients from deep in the soil back up to the surface to be recycled by other plants.

Ground cover such as strawberries or low insectirary plants such as Bugleweed.   I am actively trying to rid ourselves of a lawn here, I don't feel the need to have a noble lords estate, I would rather feel part of nature as opposed to it. 

The seventh layer is that of the Vertical climbers such as Ivy, Kiwi fruit, Wisteria, Nasturtium and more.  This would normally end the typical 7 layer food forest, but I have to keep going, observation has taught me otherwise.   To see these growing up trees is often a very beautiful sight.

Next is the Mycellium layer.  Mushrooms & fungi, the decayers of the forest have their own layer.  They help trees & plants of the forest communicate between each other, they break down carbon materials on the forest floor and provide food.    These are the hard working carbon sequestering members that make trees happy in the forest.  This is why chemical orchards have to spray so much as well.  Grass & prairies are normally bacteria dominated soils.  Trees want the opposite, they want a mushroom and fungal dominated soil which allows the tree to be more resilent and resist things like blight.  Two things to read up on this subject would be Wild Apples by Henry David Thoreau and Akinori Kimura's MIRACLE APPLES by Takuji Ishikawa. which you can find online translated into English by Yoko Ono at

The last layer is the soil itself.  It in my opinion should be regarded as a living thing, although I understand it to be so much more.  Our farm soils were once filled with billions upon billions of microscopic life feeding, sharing, breaking down the soil.  You can understand this life without ever seeing it.  When you double dig or till up soil and you are exposing them to the sunlight and without any protection they all die in a flash.  This is why you get a bumper crop when you first start out, but then the soil is hurting for lack of better written illustration and you have to start supplementing.  A result of this is why some monoculture farmers believe they need chemicals to grow food, just like an addict that needs his daily crack.   Now a days people buy humus from other places such as Alaska and shipped to all climates of the world to help with this very problem, not realizing that local microrganisms would be better off to be taken care of.  To do this, all you need to do is add your 18 day Berkeley method compost once or twice a year. 

So there you have it, a new way of looking at the traditional food forest.  Thank you and good night. 

Wednesday, February 20, 2013

A Television Show I Would Actually Watch

Back in 2003 when my partner and I were living under horrid conditions we watched a television show on Discovery Channel that kept showing us that you can actually have fun with your house on the inside and bring it outside.  In the short time of 5 days several people would get together and renovate a home under a theme such concepts as Pirates, Surfers, Bali, NYC, Vikings or Mobsters.

That show was called Monster House, hosted by Steve Watson.  A no non-sense general contractor that made sure everything was up to code and the project was given back to the home owners on time no matter what, and rewarded those that finished ahead of time.

Well, it came to me in a flash today, what about a show that Permablitzed a home or property?  They go in, help retrofit the inside and outside for self-sufficiency for people that want it. Special episodes can be to help the elderly or public / animal parks. 

With peak fuel consumption, resources running out, and self-sufficiency being important in times of local crisis, shows like this only serve to strengthen the American infrastructure & local communities.

Ah well, I can dream....

Monday, February 4, 2013

Strategies to Deal With Heavy Metals on Your Property.

In many parts of the world there are heavy metal problems.  Be it from radioactive sources, or from oil based vehicles going by our road & water ways.  Here are some ways to deal with these problems.

2 of the best things one could possibly use is sunflowers, and C. Sativa.  I know of no places where you can currently use industrial, or medical C. Sativa for this purpose sadly.  Both plants pull up heavy metals as we all as radioactive particles.  Sunflowers were used, and are still used all over Japan's nuclear radiated zones.  Oyster mushrooms do the same thing but have the added bonus of still being edible.  One can even use oyster mushrooms to clean up oil spills both on the property, and at large elsewhere in the world.  These are then pulled from the ground (sadly) and removed from the site and taken to a proper radioactive incineration facility. 

If someone places more willows & vetiver along the major roadway by the river to help the river with petrol products along the road as well.  People can also use some scented geraniums along roads as well to help with the lead and other exhausts.

The plant Water Hyacinth which is a nuisance in many areas also  help remove lead that gets into the water system.  Research has also found out that Fish bones are made of the phosphate mineral apatite, which readily combines with lead to form pyromorphite, a stable crystalline mineral that can’t be absorbed by the human digestive system.1,2 Now researchers are using fish bones and other phosphate-rich amendments to remediate lead in urban soils. “We have seen reduction in bioaccessibility in some lab samples up to fifty percent within just a few weeks of treatment,” says Steve Calanog of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), who is overseeing an agency project using fish bones to clean up soils in the South Prescott neighborhood of Oakland, California.
Luckily shellfish also contain this mineral and is also a ready free source of material to me and people along the coastal areas of the world.  Spreading it just like one would dolomite works well, and doesn't require the destruction & use of petrol chemicals that dolomite does require.

There are a great many ways to bioremediate soil & water, just takes research and patience to do something right as with many things in life. 

(Source: EPAWest Oakland Lead Cleanup. San Francisco, CA:U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 9 (Jul 2011). Available:​est%20Oakland%207_11%20Book.pdf
Miretzky P, Fernandez-Cirelli A.. Phosphates for Pb immobilization in soils: a review. Environ Chem Lett 6(3):121–133. 2008.
Wright J, et al. PIMS Using Apatite II™: How It Works To Remediate Soil and Water. In: Sustainable Range Management-2004, Hinchee RE, Alleman B, eds. Columbus, OH:Battelle Press (2004). In: Proceedings of the Conference on Sustainable Range Management, 5–8 Jan 2004, New Orleans, LA. Available:​iworks30.pdf [accessed 12 Dec 2011] )

Saturday, July 28, 2012

The Synergistic Garden by E. Hazelip

This information used to be free, but it was taken down a long time ago off the Internet.  However, with use of the Wayback Machine, with assistance from a Permaculture Research Institute forum member, I was able to recover & re-share this information from a student of Fukuoka.

The Synergistic Garden
by Emilia Hazelip

Reproduced from Prodder, translated from French by Linda Hull
(Permaculture Magazine -

Emilia Hazelip, who introduced the concept of permaculture to France over a decade ago, is constantly evolving her work and has been developing a food growing method which she calls 'Synergistic Agriculture'.

Emilia Hazelip's work is strongly influenced by Masanobu Fukuoka's system of 'natural agriculture', by permaculture and Marc Boufils's agronomical research, as well as by her own experimental work growing food crops with minimal inputs in the south of France and in other Mediterranean countries.

The first surprise when you enter Emilia's kitchen garden is seeing vegetables growing in a quite disorderly fashion on oblong mounds of earth 1.2 meters (5ft) wide by 8 meters (26ft) long. The rule is to make space for the feet and space for the plants, because putting feet where plants are to grow leads to soil compaction and where there is no air in the soil nothing will grow. The cultivated areas are well demarcated, their elevated form giving a notable increase in surface area for production. Moreover, they are all covered with mulch - covering the soil to preserve the organic material, preventing erosion and compaction by rain, diminishing evaporation in summer and maintaining a soil microclimate which reduces the adverse effects of temperature extremes. Protecting the soil in this way removes the need to aerate it each year. Emilia claims that there is no need to fertilize the soil because it is left to maintain itself: 'soil autofertility'. Instead of pulling out all the plants and leaving the ground bare over winter to suffer the effects of erosion, some plants and all roots are left in the soil, their decomposition assuring a continuous reserve of organic matter in the soil.

This also has other benefits. Leeks, for example, are cut down to the white part, then left two to three weeks to produce a second crop. Afterwards roots are left in the soil where they regenerate making seed for the following year.

In this experimental garden, the gourd is neighbor to the tomato seedling which itself is found beside beans or peppers. Because thought is given to companion planting and guilds, diversity helps plants to defend themselves better against diseases and pests. This combination of plants also supports the soil's autofertility.

You can see, here and there, flowers and weeds, or rather what are called here 'spontaneous plants'. You don't pull these out (not all, anyway) because, being indigenous, they attract insects and other organisms in the soil which are beneficial. For all these reasons, it is better to combine the greatest diversity of plants, even those which we think of as useless.

Emilia says it's necessary to allow a certain number of pests (or so-called pests) to live in the garden because they sometimes work as the gardener's helpers. If, for example, you eradicate the colonies of greenfly, the ladybirds which feed on them will no longer come and will not be there to regulate the greenfly population or to fight off the next new invasion of insects.

However, the problem of slugs is still not resolved. The ducks, which have a small pond in the middle of the garden, turned out to be inefficient (they're asleep when the slugs are in full swing!). Emilia is looking for other predators to intervene in the biological struggle. She's going to reintroduce the hedgehog and, with the co-operation of a local agricultural researcher, experiment with the efficiency of the scarab, a small beetle which is a natural predator of the slug.

Finally a synergistic garden is an ecosystem that is consciously designed to allow all the dynamic life forms present in a wild soil to remain present while still growing crops (on whatever scale). It is that simple. But that's not the view commonly held in the sphere of science or in the politics of agribusiness which rule France. Emilia exclaims passionately: "The living world is not understood by the technician, and since it is not understood, it is not studied for its diversity. People always want to apply mechanical laws to it..."

We have inherited an agriculture which has always disturbed the soil in order to prepare the next crop. The ancient agriculture of the Incas, the Mayas and the Orient also prepared the fields in such a way. Culturally, this activity has been honored and sung by poets. Ecologically, pedologically, it is a catastrophe.

A natural, non-traumatized soil presents a subtle balance of thousands of diverse specific organisms. From friendly bacteria to fungi, the presence of all these invisible subtle lives allows complex interactions - the 'Synergistic Effect'. Among the dynamic processes in the soil, I think that the ethylene-oxygen cycle is a good example of this wondrous world.

How can we give back to the soil something to compensate, and return it to natural uncultivated health? We cannot recreate that quality while we keep on destabilizing the rhizosphere. The only way is to learn a type of agriculture that will reconcile the maintenance of soil 'wildness' and the production of crops. This has been my endeavor for over 20 years. I call the system I have evolved 'Synergistic Agriculture', utilizing the self-fertility of the wild soil as fertilizer. This agriculture can be practiced on any scale and all the machinery used in the U.S.A. and Canada for no-till agriculture can be used for Synergistic Agriculture.


The foundation of my research is the work of Masanobu Fukuoka, whose book The One Straw Revolution changed my life in 1977 when it was published in English. In Fukuoka's natural agriculture no machines are used, nor greenhouses, nor all those things we normally have to do when working in a difficult climate. To me what seemed most important was to be able to obtain crops without 'exploiting' the soil, even if a compromise is made regarding machines. Before encountering Fukuoka's work, I had been working near Chadwick, in Santa Cruz, California in the late '60s. Following the reading (also in the '60s) of Ruth Stout's books Gardening Without Work and How to Have a Green Thumb Without an Aching Back, I began covering beds with a variety of materials.

Since then I have made raised beds in all my gardens, although the difference in volume came only from the soil taken off the path and put on the bed... no double-digging at all.

In 1985, during the first permaculture design course with Sego Jackson in the Pyrenees, Marc Bonfils gave a presentation on self-fertile cereal production. Since then Marc has been teaching about the agronomical reasons behind this new method of agriculture. Nowadays, microbiologists like Alan Smith and Elaine Ingham are also providing much needed evidence of the well found need to stop altering the soil's stability and stressing it to exhaustion by plowing.

I cannot call this agriculture 'do-nothing' agriculture since, on the contrary, there is much to do to establish a succession of cultures where what you are leaving behind is as important as what you are harvesting. A detailed plan indicating the plant mixtures and successions, paying attention to the kind of root residue the soil is receiving combined constantly with nitrogen-fixing plants of the legumes variety, is a must.


Although to start the system the soil can be dug over thoroughly, once we start the garden we must be sure not to disturb the soil deeper than the sowing depth, and only then where it is sown. What consumes organic matter in the soil is the chemical reaction that follows when atmospheric gases are put in intimate contact with the soil while plowing. Although by mineralizing humus, a quick instant fertilizer has been produced, the price you pay for this is much too high. Plants' growth and health also depend on other substances like ethylene gas which enhances the assimilation of iron. Plants will be healthy if all the digestive flora in the soil are present. Soil and plants are a single organism.

Plants are the 'antenna' of the soil, capturing light and creating solid, organic, vegetable matter from the space above, since 95% of needed nutrients come from gases and light. In other words, the plant is only taking 21/2% of its needs from the soil in the form of minerals and trace elements. The remaining 21/2% of nutrients is nitrogen, which can be obtained in a symbiotic way by combining with nitrogen-fixing plants, mainly from the legumes family, like beans, chickpeas, favabeans, lentils and peas.

Harvesting is as important as the rest of the process. The soil is a living mass of interacting beings, and they all eat just like everything alive on this planet. Their foodchains are a wonder of intricate relationships covering the mineral, the vegetal, and the animal/insect/bacteria worlds.

When we disturb the soil by plowing it, despite our best intentions we are creating stress in it. The moment we stop doing this we can organize our garden or farm in such a way that the soil functions as if 'in the wild'. A maximum of what has grown in it is left either by its roots (for an above the ground crop) or by following a rootcrop by another crop which will leave generous amounts of roots in the soil, such as Swiss chard.

These residues, together with a biodegradable mulch, amount to surface composting, leaving more organic matter in the soil than the crop has removed. From the moment we stop mineralizing the humus, litter accumulates on the soil as well as in a myriad of microsites within it, hosting happy bacteria cycling between ethylene and oxygen, releasing biological gas essential to the wellbeing of all types of roots.

The less we disturb the soil, the more diversity and intensity of interactions will take place in its mass, so the healthier the plants and the fewer problems there will be for us. It is time for us to acknowledge that the soil needs to be itself while we produce our crops. We must respect this organism enough to let it function in its natural way although 'domesticated' by our technical care. The organisms in the soil are like the bloodstream of the human body which carries nutrients and participates in the assimilation of the minerals that are present.

Above the ground leaves act like photovoltaic cells, capturing light and producing energy. The only bridge doing this fantastic job is plants; it has always struck me as odd, that, although in the wild, plants are the first link in the food chains and are responsible for the creation of 'soil', in agriculture, on the other hand, they are accused of destroying the soil. Typical of Homo occidentalis, the crops have been made a scapegoat for the negative effects of plowing!

The soil should never be opened up and forcefed, not even with the best made compost ever. Leave only to the soil what is grown in it. As for the rest put it above the soil, as mulch. And let all the soil occupants absorb it into its mass.

I truly believe that as long as we have not found peace with the soil, we won't find peace above the ground. That as long as we justify the exploitation of an organism, other exploitations will follow and we will remain parasites, consuming more than participating and spiralling into entropy until we commit mass suicide.

The Four Principles Of Synergistic Agriculture

1. Keep the soil undisturbed and uncompacted.
2. Use the soil's self-fertility as fertilizer.
3. Integrate the litter zone with the agricultural soil profile.
4. Establish a partnership with beneficials to protect crops.

Raised beds are only needed where crops are harvested continually. For areas where produce is harvested once only, a good layer of mulch will he enough to protect the soil from compaction.

The following examples apply to raised beds in regions with a temperate climate, where nighttime temperatures in the winter do not fall below -10 degrees C. For gardens in more extreme latitudes, or at high altitudes, a quite different strategy is needed. Equally for climates that are frost-free in winter an alternative planting and cropping succession plan will apply.

In my experience the positive or negative results that I have had with sowing dates have happened as a result of studying the development of plants throughout the season, in relation to weather etc. (I've long since given up following the lunar/cosmic calendar, there being insufficient evidence of results to justify the time and complication of applying it.) Perhaps certain influences come from our attitude rather than from further afield... and besides a happy, self-fertile soil does influence germination and the growth of plants.

Let's look then at how to handle production for a three-year cycle (which can be repeated indefinitely) on three different raised beds.

YEAR 1 April
Sow root vegetables in lines, planted 25-30 centimeters apart, of carrots and/or beets, as well as turnips on the flat top of the raised bed. When sowing small seeds, push back the mulch in the line to be sown, and without 'working the soil', simply make an indentation the same length as the line, put your seeds in as you normally do and sprinkle some soil on top. Then put some pressure on the soil so that it adheres to the seed. If the seeds are small do not replace the mulch, but do keep the area moist. This crop can be combined with any type of sweet garden pea, which can be sown either in pockets or across the narrow bed every 2-3 meters.

On the sides of the raised bed plant in a zig-zag pattern; try onion sets or seedlings interspersed with any type of lettuce or salad chicory. Keep the sides permanently planted with cut and come again salads, planting new seedlings next to the plants that are going to seed. When the onions are harvested, use the same zone for new onion varieties, or for garlic or leeks. Over a period of time you should try to plant 'salads' where the onions were, and put the liliaceous varieties where the salads were. The sides of all raised beds should be treated similarly except where you want to grow perennial chives or other perennial or self-seeding members of the same family.

Be sure to sow flowers too in all your beds: calendula (predominantly the orange variety), as well as all types of French marigolds and nasturtiums, paying attention to their growth pattern. Each bed should have at least one of each of these plants as beneficial companions to the crops. Plant them on the flat top of the raised bed, but don't let them take up too much space.

As you harvest the root crop, sow mustard greens in the same spaces. As the sweet garden peas are cut and left as mulch, sow pockets of beans at random.

September - October
Sow winter varieties of spinach as the mustard greens are harvested.

Sow broad beans or sweet garden peas among the spinach.

YEAR 2 March - April
Plant lines of Swiss chard plants among the broad beans. Sow legumes now if you didn't plant them last autumn (or if they didn't survive the winter).

June - August
Before harvesting the legumes, sow beans between the Swiss chard; continue putting in beans throughout the summer.

Sow broad beans or sweet garden peas (different varieties than last year), parallel with the lines of chard.

YEAR 3 March - April
Continue harvesting the Swiss chard until it begins to go to flower. As soon as this happens cut most of the plants back as low as possible. Depending on the size of the bed and how many plants you have, choose at least two, but not more than four, to stake and let go to seed. (Space doesn't allow for details of selecting which plants to choose for seed production). Planting parallel to the spent Swiss chard roots, begin a further root vegetable sowing following the Year I pattern; when choosing succession plants bear in mind the crop rotation, and try to avoid having two plants of the same family following each other.

YEAR 1 March - April
Sow small peas in pockets, at 50-60 centimeters distance.

In the center of: the bed plant tomatoes in two zig-zag lines. In front of the tomatoes sow basil and coriander.

Sow beans among the tomatoes all through the summer.

Sow broad beans in between the dying/dead plants that have been cut and left as mulch.

YEAR 2 March - April
Tomato plants like growing on soil where tomatoes have been grown before, so no rotation strategy is needed - so repeat the Year I pattern although it's worth moving the plants round so that roots are distributed through all the soil (put the coriander where you had the basil and vice versa).

For winter legumes alternate each year between sweet garden peas and broad beans.

YEAR 3 Spring
Repeat Year I or follow the pattern in raised bed 3 if you prefer to integrate a rotation pattern.

YEAR 1 March - April
Sow small peas.

Plant (or sow) two rows of any type of squash in a wide zig-zag line towards the center of the bed, together with some sweet corn.

Begin sowing your beans.

In the spaces between the squash leaves, plant Chinese cabbage, broccoli or Brussels sprouts (the squash leaves providing shade to protect the transplanted seedlings).

Sow broad beans or sweet garden peas in between the cabbages.

YEAR 2 Spring
As harvesting progresses (always ensuring that you cut the plants and leave the roots undisturbed in the soil), you can sow spinach, mustard greens and/or borage and New Zealand spinach.

Sow beans among the other plants.

Broad beans or sweet garden peas.

YEAR 3 Spring
Year 1 can be repeated or alternate with raised bed 2 (or another one).

WATERING Install a drip irrigation hose (a simple narrow hose with perforations every 25-30 centimeters works fine and shouldn't suffer from chalk build-up). 2 hoses per bed is the optimum, placed in parallel about l0 centimeters from the edges of the flat top of the raised bed.

SUPPORTS If you want to set up a system of supports which can be left permanently in place in the garden and which will not be damaged however strong the wind, try 6 meter long building rods (10 or 12 centimeter gauge) forming an arch across the beds. Attach a strong wire from the apex of each crossed arch to the next and these will form good supports for winter climbing peas as well as summer beans.

Be sure to use biodegradable string for attaching plants to the supports, so that at the end of the season you can simply undo the knots from the support and let string and plants mulch together on the bed. Cucumbers, melons and many squashes can be encouraged to climb in this way, thus freeing up a lot of space at ground level.

REMEMBER Gardening the self-fertility way produces a rich harvest: the more plants which live and die in the soil the richer and more fertile it becomes.

Reproduced from Prodder, translated from French by Linda Hull.

Further Readings:
1. Masanobu Fukuoka, The One-Straw Revolution. 1978. Rodale.
2. -The Natural Way of Farming. 1985. Japan Publications
3. -The Road Back to Nature. 1987. Japan Publications.
4. Ruth Stout. Gardening Without Work. 1961. Devin-Adair.
5.-How to Have a Green Thumb Without an Aching Back. 1968. Exposition Press.
6.-The Ruth Stout No-Work Garden Book. 1971. Rodale Press. 
7. Alan Smith. "Secrets of the Living Soil." 1981. Permaculture International Journal #1
(or again in PIJ #39).
8. Lea Harrison. "Soil Fertility." Permaculture Activist #26.
9. Elaine Ingham. "Life in the Soil: Understanding the Soil Foodweb.'' Jan. 1997, Acres, U.S.A.
10. B. Mollison & D. Holmgren. Permaculture One. 1981. Tagari.
11. Marc Bonfils. LeSol el I 'Erosion. 1985. Las Encantadas.

Emilia Hazelip has taught permaculture for many years.  She writes from the region of the Pyrenees Mountains in the southwest of France.

The Synergistic Garden Video Tape By Emilia Hazelip
Las Encantadas, BP 217, F-11306 Limoux-Cedex, France
Tel/Fax 33+46-83-15-111

An educational video on no-till synergistic gardening that describes the step-by-step processes developed by Emilia Hazelip to create an ecological agriculture. She became interested in Fukuoka's work in 1977 and this video shows the cultural and climatological adaptations she has developed in the course of years of research. Available in Spanish, French, Italian & English in many formats.